It supports extension to other frameworks, such as Apache CXF, ActiveMQ, Jetty, Quartz and so much more, which makes your app highly 'talkative'. For the full list of components, you can always refer to the site here.
Camel has the concept of endpoints, routes, consumer, producers and processors. Endpoints are services you've defined to listen or to send out messages. Routes on the other hand are consist of endpoints and processors. Endpoints, for instance, are A and B, a Route is (A->B). - Thanks MK for the explanation.
There are two ways that I know of to start writing your own apps running on Camel. First, you need to know what are your endpoints, and the route of the messages coming in. Next, decide if your application needs to add new routes or endpoints during runtime, or routing rules are fixed after startup. Do you need to allow your application to be deployed on top of a web container?
More to come...